I'm wondering if it would be possible to move this support column 1 meter to the left, so that it lines up with the start of the sliding doors instead of being in the middle of it. Would I need to add extra bracing/support?
Call a aluminum carport company . See if they can add a header and two post to remove the one in the way.
That design was very poorly thought out, but you undoubtedly know that already...
The structural members going along your house will have a maximum "span" width that they can support. Moving it to one side will decrease the span on the side that you move it to, but INCREASE 9it on the opposite side, and you will have no idea if that will be too much or not. If I had to guess though, it probably is, otherwise they would have made it wider to begin with.
So what I would do is to decrease the span on BOTH sides by adding ANOTHER support post, one on either side of the sliding doors. That way you have not increased the span anywhere and there is no doubt as to whether or not it is safe.