It would be wise to investigate further and make an intentional repair. We can only speculate what sort of damage might have been done to the cable: partial removal of insulation from one conductor or from more than one conductor, nicking or other removal of metal from one or more conductors, etc.
A nick in a conductor could make it more susceptible to breaking with vibration and thermal changes over time, and a break could lead to arcing.
Removal of insulation leaves a possibly energized conductor open to contact with whatever might exist or get into the wall, including contact with other conductors in the same cable, again with unpredictable effects or timing.
A "short" doesn't necessarily cause a circuit breaker to trip immediately (or even at all), so when the damaged wire is left energized, there's a risk of unchecked arcing which can lead to fire. Fire concealed inside a wall is a particularly bad thing.