NM-B hasn't changed much from then to now
The NM-B cable used in 1982 is little different from today's NM-B cable -- PVC or Nylon-coated PVC insulated copper wires with a kraft paper separator wrapped over them, and a PVC jacket extruded over the top of that -- all of this is impregnated with flame retardants, of course.
Given that, and what is known about PVC insulation, provided the wiring was not damaged by installation or subsequently subject to mechanical abuse, water damage, or prolonged/repeated overload or overheating, there is no reason to be concerned about the state of the wire in your walls.
Your panel is probably a bigger deal than your wires
A 1982-era electrical panel, though, while reasonably modern, could still pose issues. There are three factors I consider when it comes to whether panel replacement is warranted or not, and they are Construction (who built it? is it a conventional/reliable design, or something that hasn't stood the test of time?), Condition (has there been heat damage? water ingress? excess corrosion? loose contacts?), and Capacity (both in terms of amps and more importantly, spaces -- many houses can get by on 100A even in today's world, and even an all-electric house can easily suffice on a 200A service if designed correctly, but running out of panel spaces is a serious and easily-made error in today's world).
If your panel is of a currently made type and has sufficient space, then I would install GFCI and AFCI protection to current Codes at this point -- that will keep you in Code for a long time.
If and only if there are other reasons to rewire
If other reasons to rewire (such as having too few branch circuits, or physical damage to the existing wiring) are in play, then there are a couple options. In any case, going with 12AWG throughout is not a bad idea if you are in the situation -- the additional copper cost is balanced out by the reduction in Bill of Materials line items (i.e. you can get better economies of scale if you don't have to buy so many kinds of wire and cable).
As other answers here indicate, THHN in metal conduit (EMT) is the gold standard of building wiring -- it's largely overkill in a typical house, though, unless you're in Chicago where local codes require the use of conduit wiring methods.
Outside of Chicago, if I was considering a rewire and EMT was not in the cards, I would strongly look at the newer MCI-A cables available on the market now. They use a construction that is a hybrid between AC and MC cable, replacing the undersized "bonding strip" in AC with a full-size bare EGC that is in continuous contact with the cable armor, thus providing a type MC cable where the armor is usable as a grounding means.
As a result, MCI-A cables provide some of the advantages of a metal conduit system (such as grounding everywhere) with the speed of cable wiring, especially with the availability of MC box connectors that snap onto the cable and into the box instead of requiring setscrews. This is further underscored by the elimination of grounding conductor makeup, especially when self-grounding device yokes are used.
One handy tip if you do stick with NM
If you are rewiring and do want to stick with NM cable, one tip is to run ENT ("smurf") in places where wiring expansion may be called for (such as between a bathroom fan/light switch and its associated fan, or for traveller runs in complex multiway switching situations), then pull individual THHN wires through it. A 1/2" ENT has room for more THHNs than you'll ever need in a residential environment, and is cheap to acquire and run relative to most other types of conduit.