@jasper has a good answer, but to address the actual "standing in the store" side of things...
First, know what you need in a board. Do you need the entire length, or are you going to be nipping some off? Do you need it to be straight? Do you need something that's more dry or more wet? Do the faces have to look nice or will anything do?
With the above in mind, pick up one end of the board. Look down the edge for unacceptable curves or twist. Look down the face for crown. (Twist is always a loser in my books. Curves of various types might work, but it depends on your application.)
You'll soon get a feel for how wet or dry a board is, based on weight. (Doesn't apply to PT, since that's almost always wet.) Wet wood is easier to nail, but more prone to changing shape as it dries out. If you've already built it into a structure and then it gets a chance to dry, this probably isn't an issue. If you plan to store it for a while, you should probably be trying to get dry-ish wood. (Dry-ish in a big box context is very different from "dry" in a furniture making context, btw.)
Last check is aesthetics... does it suit your application? Modest gouges/ mill marks/ etc don't really matter in structural work; they matter a lot if everything is visible.