So let's learn a bit about ceramic tile here
How do you know this is ceramic tile?
Because of the white pattern on top of the pink-ish color. Real slate would have the same look on both sides.
What holds ceramic tile down?
Thin set mortar. It's a type of concrete and should be commonly found at any local supply store where they sell ceramic tile. If you're only going to replace this one tile, you could get away with buying some pre-mixed, since a full bag for one tile is overkill. You'll also need a mortar trowel with appropriate sized notches (consult the thin set you're buying, since the mix and tile determines how large a notch you need). Most likely you'll need a 0.25" x 0.25" notch (not sure how those are sold in the UK)
Just chisel out the thin set before you put more thin set down.
Why did this tile come up?
The answer is that someone did the bare minimum to lay the tile. In fact, I would say you could rip the rest of the tiles up with minimal effort and breakage. Look at the back of the tile you pulled up. Note how almost no thin set is on the tile. The thin set is the "glue" that holds the tile to the floor. Ceramic tile has that white diamond pattern on the back to increase the area of adhesion and you press it into the thin set after notching it with the trowel.
The problem with only troweling the floor is that sometimes the tile doesn't get enough on it to adhere properly Unfortunately, this is the minimum amount of work you need to lay tile, so quick contractors and newbie DIYers will only do that.
If you want the tile to stay down better, do something called "back buttering". Think of your tile as a piece of bread. Using the flat part of your trowel, scrape a thin layer of thin set onto the tile and then lay it into your notched thin set. You'll get far better adhesion and tiles coming up like this will be uncommon.