Are there any charts indicating what type of joints are stronger than others? For example, how would one determine which of the following joints is stronger? Intuitively I'd say longer cuts increases surface area and torque resistance, therefore the peg is a trade-off of less surface area for more shear resistance, but mostly it just secures the beam while the glue dries. Probably 4-8 screws would be better than the peg. The block is a poor choice because it eliminates any lateral point of connection making the beam only as strong as the block..there is no opportunity to glue.
But suppose my intuition is wrong! What table(s) is/are used to gain assurance?
EDIT: Thanks to @Michael-Karas I was able to understand that these splices aren't necessary thereby eliminating my concern altogether. The question still applies for perpendicular splicing but I think those patterns are already well established.