Do I need AFCI for dedicated circuits like sump pumps, furnaces, microwave, refrigerator etc.
Yes, you need AFCI protection
As of the 2017 NEC, AFCI protection has been extended to all 15 and 20A, 120V branch circuit outlets in all dwelling unit locations. This includes dedicated appliances such as furnaces and dishwashers, and even smoke detector circuits. The only exception present is for a fire alarm control panel for a protected-premises fire alarm system (i.e. with separate detectors, "brain box"/fire alarm control panel, and sounders) under NFPA 72.
Depending on where your sump pump is located and its voltage it might be exempt.
All 120-volt,single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits supplying outlets or devices ... require AFCI protection.
There are some key words here '120 VOLT' and 'Devices' ...
If your furnace is 220 Volt you are good.
Your Refrigerator and Microwave on the other hand AFCI.
2017 National Electrical Code (NEC) article 210.12(A) requires Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupter (AFCI) protection for branch circuits supplying all 120-volt, 15 & 20 amp outlets or devices it covers the whole house ..
NEC 2014 had added the Kitchen and the Laundry rooms; NEC 2017 advanced it to whole house..
One big keyword device's - that includes Lighting .. anything connected to your service panel 120V in any room of the home. Although there is an exception for Panel to Subpanel where the first panel is being used as a junction box.
Unless you're in Michigan. Because of the downsides and cost of AFCI's
One of the more significant Michigan amendments in the MRC section E3902.11 which specifies arc-fault protection in 1&2 family dwellings. The 2009 MRC keeps the requirement for arc- fault protection the same as it was in the 2006 MRC.
AFCI tradeoffs are controversial. AFCI's use energy all the time, so called "vampire power". They false trip. In a sump pump application that false trip can lead to flooding.
And, they may or may not actually do the job intended: https://www.mikeholt.com/mojonewsarchive/AFCI-HTML/HTML/AFCI_-_Why_I_Have_a_Problem_With_It~20020801.htm http://www.combinationafci.com/resources/doc_ieee_combination_afci.pdf