In this state the power pole is regulated by the requirements on the utility company, but must be inspected and approved by the AHJ. The most important thing to remember about any temporary power set up is that all power must be GFCI protected. There are some questions about breakers that serve feeders other than standard power outlets being GFCI protected. I have found, in this area, it varies between each jurisdiction.
Here is a standard Temporary Power Pole assembly issued by the utility company that always seems to work if you follow it to the letter.
A standard temp pole only has two 20A 120V circuits GFCI protected, and one standard 20A 2P 240V circuit connected to a suitable receptacle, but non GFCI protected. Like I said some jurisdiction say its ok and some make you remove and blank out the breaker. Sometimes Jurisdictions will allow you to install what is called a spider box with extra receptacle outlets on it, but they also must meet NEC and jurisdictional codes. If you take a good look at note 4 on the image you will see that most temp power poles are 40 or 60 amp feeders. I generally will go with a 60A feeder.
In conclusion what I am saying is that there are pre qualified types of power pole directions that cover all of the NEC requirements without having to go through the entire code to get it right, and is perfect for a DIY party to construct. If you take a good look at the image I posted. How many code sections would you have to address just to build a temporary power and hope you got it right? As for myself I would just go with what they say will work and move on.
Hope this helps and good luck.