Here's the math to show that a few broken fluorescent bulbs don't pose a significant mercury hazard, and that you should clean it up the same as any other broken glass.
A CFL contains 5 mg of mercury vapor, less for new models.
Unless you plan on eating the broken glass, the primary exposure pathway is inhalation. Adults breathe about 8 liters per minute when sedentary. That's about 4 m^3 in 8 hours.
Therefore, if you huffed all of the gas inside one CFL, your 8-hr average exposure would be 5/4 = 1.2 mg/m^3.
What does 1.2 mean? For comparison, here are some airborne mercury exposure limitations from this OSHA fact sheet. The numbers are low, because mercury accumulates in the body over a lifetime.
- 0.1 mg/m^3 (OSHA PEL, 8-hr average, a maximum for workers in the US).
- 0.05 mg/m^3 (NIOSH 10-hr workday, a recommendation).
- 0.025 mg/m^3 (ACGIH 8-hr average, another recommendation).
1.2/0.1 = 12× the OSHA PEL. That's 12 work-days worth of acceptable exposure. (Better call in sick.) However, the cited fact sheet, above, is for industrial fluorescent tube crushing machines; the workers near such a machine would be exposed every work day for their career, not your once-a-decade accident.
In conclusion, you should be concerned about mercury vapor from fluorescent tubes only in the most extreme and improbable circumstances, or if it's your job. If you ventilate the affected room with open doors and windows, and don't do this very often, you'll have bigger things to worry about.
If you still want to handle the waste with extra care, the only authority would necessarily be your trash hauler. Ask them. They may tell you to throw it in the regular trash. A dedicated waste steam for fluorescent tubes would be regulated (in the US) as "Universal Waste", which is for hazardous wastes that are politically infeasible to regulate as such.