You can always use a larger gauge than is required
So if you have a 15A circuit, you are required to use least 14 AWG wire. However if you want to use #12, #8, 4/0... whatever, as long as your wiring methods are proper.
There's one hitch, but it's a "practical, implementation" issue moreso than a rule. That's attaching the wire to the device, receptacle, switch, whatever, or making the larger wire fit somewhere.
For instance I just looked at a 15A receptacle, and it is listed for #12 or #14 copper wire -- and only #14 solid if using the backstab (which is a bad idea). You have to comply with all that. So if you upsized to #10, you can't connect it to that receptacle directly, you must pigtail the receptacle with a #12 (or possibly #14 if on a 15A circuit).
Or say you have 10 of these conductors to put down a 1/2" EMT conduit. That's legal with #12, but if you upsize to #10, that exceeds conduit fill rules.
And of course you still have to follow all the other circuit rules, so if you have a 20A socket, it still has to be on a 20A breaker even if the wire is #8.