I have a Square D electrical box. I need to know if I can run my 30 amp dryer off of a 20 amp breaker.

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    What is the size of the wire? Does the wire have 4 wires (hot, hot2, neutral, ground)? Is the cable or conduit accessible enough that you could run new wire if you really had to? – Harper - Reinstate Monica Dec 6 '17 at 21:01
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    You could, but your run time would be REALLY short. The purpose of the breaker is to disconnect if more than the 20 amp rating is drawn. As soon as the dryer tried to draw more than 20 amps, the breaker would shut off. – fixer1234 Dec 7 '17 at 22:50

No the dryer is two large of a load for a 20 amp. Code requires the size for calculations at 5000w, this would require a double pole 30 amp breaker to be properly sized. Number 10 wire from the breaker to the outlet.

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    This is the correct answer. I just want to emphasize the number 10 wire as well. Attempting to replace the breaker for a larger size, but not the wire too would be a fire hazard. – TFK Dec 6 '17 at 18:25

This really is as simple as 30 being bigger than 20. No, this will not work. A 20 amp circuit can only handle appliances up to 20 amps.

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    True, although this suggests that "simple" substitution of a 30 amp breaker might be a solution, which it is not, unless the conductors are also rated for at least 30 amps. – Upnorth Dec 8 '17 at 5:10

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