Use a two-pole, common-trip breaker and you're set
Since you're dealing with a 20A circuit (where 15 and 20A receptacles are allowed), you can set up this mix of receptacles provided you handle it as for any other combination 120/240V load: all four wires need to be there, as shown in your drawing, and the breaker that protects it needs to be a two-pole, common trip unit (no handle ties here!). This is written into the Code, albeit somewhat awkwardly, as 210.4(C) exception 2:
(C) Line-to-Neutral Loads. Multiwire branch circuits
shall supply only line-to-neutral loads.
Exception No.1: A multiwire branch circuit that supplies
only one utilization equipment.
Exception No.2: Where all ungrounded conductors of the
multiwire branch circuit are opened simultaneously by the
branch-circuit overcurrent device.