I gather you're thinking of pre-fitted plywood or OSB panels, with latching or boltdown hardware already installed, pre-stenciled with diagrams of exactly on the house where they go, which quickly peg to tiedown points which have been pre-fitted on each window. And there's a shed or corner in the garage where these will be stored.
I could see that. That is viable. You will need to keep tenants from stuffing a bunch of their junk in front of them so you don't have to spend 20 minutes digging out. Even assuming quick access, I would figure a bit more than 10 minutes per house.
Now... ever see the pretty decorative shutters on certain styles of house? They're not real, they don't do anything.
However, they are a stylistic mimicry of real shutters, whose purpose is what you want.
Although, looking closer at my chosen photo, I see a pocket in the windowframe and obvious linkage equipment on the shutter proper -- this may indeed be a functioning shutter. These can close in seconds, and the tenant can do it, assuming they can access whatever mechanism holds them open.
While we're on the subject, I noticed an astonishing number of Houston 2-story apartments in TV footage that still had power despite the first floor being 3' underwater. It is obvious their power service came into the 2nd floor, the trunks ran along the 2nd floor, and only certain branches dipped to the 1st floor and they had GFCI protection, so when they got wet, those individual branches just tripped. Those owners were ready for it!