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I want to install a new light over the bathroom vanity. I removed the cover plate of the existing fixture. Looking at the instructions for installation I was expecting one black wire, one white wire and a ground wire. Instead I found the following: enter image description here

I'm assuming I can attach the black wire from the new fixture to "1", the white wire from the new fixture to "2", and the ground wire from the fixture to the screw on the junction box at "3".

Am I correct?

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You are almost right

The solo black wire is indeed the switched hot for this circuit and the junction of all white wires is indeed your neutral. However, you shouldn't tap ground at the box screw, but in the wirenut with the bare wires in it (in the back of the box) -- the box ground screw isn't intended for two wires at once.

P.S. the other junction (one white and rest black) is where the always-hot is -- the white wire in it carries the always-hot to the switch in an old-style switch loop configuration.

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