Only expanding on the breaker issue.
The breaker/fuse is connected in series and is designed to break when current through it reaches the specified value. Period.
Breakers use the relationship between current in the coil and intensity of the magnetic field it generates; fuses use the relationship between current and power dissipation.
If we know what the mains voltage is, we can estimate what power must be consumed in the circuit to cause the breaker/fuse to open. What power is needed to burn the fuse is a completely different story.
If you have a 15A fuse protecting 110V mains the faulty device will consume 1,65 kW and I think the fuse itself will draw around 10 W to heat and burn.
If you use the very same fuse to protect 12V mains in your car the faulty device must consume 180 W to break the fuse.
If you have accidentally used 220V mains instead of 110V the device must consume 3,3kW to burn the fuse!
In your case, say you have used 100W/110V lamp. In normal opperation it draws 0,9 A. If you connect it to 220V mains it dissipates 400 W. If I use a 50% safety margin in the lamp design it will withstand a 150 W load which is way too small to sustain the accidental load. The current of 1.8 A is way too small to trigger the 15A fuse...
To your question: I will repeat what has been already suggested. Get this work done by qualified electrician. Do not do it yourself, unless you are damn sure what you are doing. And get yourself a multimeter.