The "disconnecting means" rule doesn't apply to you
Keep in mind there's only one NEC which covers everything from homes to assembly plants to nuclear power stations, and a lot of the rules are actually intended for industrial settings. The rule in 422.32 that says there must be a disconnecting means within sight of the appliance, and I have never seen that applicable to anything in a residence, wood shop notwithstanding.
- First, the disconnecting means requirement is totally irrelevant to a cord-and-plug connected appliance.
- Second, in a single-family home, your main breaker suffices as the disconnecting means (422.34c).
- Third, good chance the dishwasher doesn't have a motor more than 1/8 horsepower, so would be exempted.
The rule is about planned maintenance in an industrial setting. Maintainers are sloppy about doing LockOut/TagOut procedures, so Code now requires a shutoff within line-of-sight of the machine. That way Bubba can turn his head and see the maintainer's cart and feet sticking out of the machine, and know not to turn it on; rather than guess at what's happening on the third floor. The rule also forces you (factory owner) to put local disconnects near machines, which makes LockOut/TagOut easier to do and more likely to be done.
A proper disconnecting means. Note dual lock positions, lower to keep out curious fingers, upper for LockOut/TagOut.
NEC does not require GFCI Receptacles at all.
It's a common mistake to read NEC, see a requirement for GFCI protection, and interpret that in your mind as "a GFCI receptacle, you know, the ones with the TEST and RESET buttons". There is no such requirement. NEC does not care how or where your GFCI protection is derived - from a subpanel, breaker, deadface, the LOAD terminals off a GFCI receptacle elsewhere, they do not specify or care.
Likewise, it's common for people to get fixated on "You only have GFCI protection at a receptacle if I can see the TEST and RESET buttons", and likewise, totally untrue.
The reason this works is that almost any GFCI device has a set of terminals marked LOAD. These are meant to accept a hot and neutral wire from other outlets, and it will provide GFCI protection for those outlets.
So you have wide choice here.
- You can have a subpanel (with GFCI main breaker) for all your kitchen/bathroom/garage/basement loads.
- You can put a GFCI breaker in the panel for that circuit.
- You can put a GFCI deadface anywhere you please. This is in the form-factor of a GFCI receptacle, but lacks any sockets.
- You can put a GFCI receptacle anywhere you please, and feed this load off its LOAD terminals. Many service panels have a receptacle just a couple inches from the panel, often installed as a convenience for the electrician while he wires the home or facility. That is a great place for a GFCI receptacle that feeds other loads. Regardless of where you put it, you have to be realistic about how much other load your users will put into it. A receptacle in the kitchen is at risk of having a microwave or panini grill plugged into it; most kitchen appliances which make heat use 1500W of power. (that's in the US.)