I'm curious why this particular shape of jaws on digital caliper like this one has.
I mean the tapered pointy ends of the outer and inner jaws. The different shapes of the inner jaws one having a step.
The jaws have a knife edge for measuring the distance between two holes, which is needed when measuring the distance between hole centres.
If the jaws didn't have a knife-edge tip, the width of the tip would hold the caliper away from the hole at two points and the measurement would be wrong.
The recesses for clearance are found on other tools where you need to prevent sharp corners (or burrs) on the object from contacting a radiussed inner corner on the measuring tool.
Note the recess in the corner of this engineer's square
There are a wide range of jaw shapes available for specialised purposes.
Source - Mitutoyo
The most common jaw shape is probably a compromise that is useful in a wide range of situations.
The tapered ends in the shorter inside measure jaws allow for measurement of diameter of small holes, narrow grooves or small spaces between two other parts.