I have trouble understanding what's the point in cutting beam endings in order to make wood construction connections. Assume a connection of a 50mm x 50 mm beam (green) to a 100mm x 100mm beam (pink)
with a leaf connection (my translation for - I guess - the simplest wood construction connection consisting of removing half of the diameter of the beam and putting that part into the counterpart connection cut out). I imagine that the forces where the beams connect are the same as on the whole green beam, but the connection must obviously hold because those connections are used in construction, so why not make the beam only half the diameter large/do for the whole beam what works at the location of the connection?
I further assume that there's an impact of the connection cut-out/notch, but it'll be smaller than making only 50% of the bearing load usable (otherwise every wood construction would generally waste up to 50% of its material). How can I estimate this impact.
The leaf connection is used in this example in order to reduce the material which has to be removed from the pink beam.
This might all be not ideal and not true; it's a question to improve my understanding - I'm not the contractor building the schools for your kids.