Don't even try.
Just do what you're already doing, to one of the switches. Then, run a /3 cable from that switch to the other switch.
At that point, it's the common, standard "both switches on the end of the string" 3-way circuit. Simple enough.
Use /4 cable
Or, do exactly the above, except -- oh wait. The receptacle. Nevermind.
This idea would work if the second switch is at or past the receptacle. In this case red remains switched-hot, and black-blue become messengers. Feed black/always-hot to the nearer 3-way, past that it carries black-blue/messengers to the other switch, which returns it on red.
It would also work if you could install conduit in that section where the messengers must parallel the always-hot. You can't buy /5, but you can put 5 wires in conduit.
Heck with it. Smart switches.
Since you've done such a nice job of busing always-hot, switched-hot and neutral, this situation is ripe for a pair of smart switches.
You would need a pair that communicates via power-line signaling or by wireless/radio, since you have no spare wires. Unless you'd like to do the kaboodle in /4, and use blue for the signaling wire.
Addendum: What about running 2 parallel Romex cables, i.e. /2 and /3 instead of /5? No, no, no! It is vital that in every condition, the current outbound be in the same single cable as the current returning. AC current emits a formidable, magnetic field pulsing at 50/60Hz (which is how transformers work.) When the outbound current and returning current are in the same cable, these fields substantially cancel each other out. However if they are in different cables, anything between them gets the full brunt. This causes eddy currents and magnetic heating (this is the reason transformers are laminated). Also, EMF is literally electro-motive force, meaning it wants to make things move. (which is how motors work). Two separate cables could move/vibrate/buzz relative to each other, damaging or fatiguing the cables over time.