I screwed up cutting the hole for the 25" drop in sink on my $160 countertop. It's just a little too wide. What are my options besides buying a larger 33 inch sink and being more careful next time?
You can put a piece of wood on the edge, scoot the sink over by 1/8", and epoxy and caulk. If this sink is highly utilized I wouldn't expect this to look pretty after six months. You have the weight of dishes and water in the sink, you have dirt and grime, just nothing that will hold up like a countertop.
Even thinking of a weird solution that could cost you $10-20 to look crappy, a good sink can usually be had for $30-40 so I would personally install a bigger one.
If, by chance, the countertop overhangs at one end, you could slice the top crosswise somewhere in the sink cutout, remove about 1/2" (or whatever it takes to make the sink cover the hole), and shift the overhanging portion toward the sink. You'd be left with a seam in the small strip in front of and behind the sink, but that's not out of the ordinary.
I built a custom corner-sink top for my previous home's kitchen with routed oak edges. I intentionally seamed it near the corners of the sink to minimize seam length. It performed without issue for 16 years. You might seal the cut ends before bringing them together to prevent swelling of the particle board.
You cannot jury-rig this kind of screw-up. You have to buy a new counter and make the right size hole, or buy a larger sink to fit the hole (which you will have to cut again anyway).
First of all, the sink needs sufficient support around its perimeter for clamping, sealing and support. You have to have a good bead of sealant underneath to prevent water ingress under the sink. If you don't know how or don't realize the error, you have to make the hole for the sink just big enough for the bowl to slip into the counter. YouTube can show you.
Secondly, laminate joints are never, ever, ever, ever, ever under the sink flange. Nowhere near the sink if I am in charge. Laminate joints are not waterproof, and any water at all will always wick into the substrate below the laminate, causing swelling and further leakage.
Thirdly, remember that you have cabinetry below this area. If water gets into it through a botched sink installation, you will get mold, wrecked cabinetry, and further damage below the area, sometimes causing thousands of dollars of damage in a very short time.
Just do it right. You messed it up, we all make mistakes. Own it though and fix it properly. if its a customer, you owe it to them to do it properly. If its your own home, you will just be repairing it over and over and over again, wasting your time.