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5

The wiring in the wall (12/14awg) is sized to handle the entire capacity of that circuit up to 20/15 amp. The circuit will regularly include multiple lights or outlets within it. The circuitry within the light you mentioned only needs to handle the capacity that that device will use. If you open a device with a larger power draw (blender?) you will notice ...


15

Circuit wire is kept relatively large because general purpose receptacles are just that: general purpose. You can plug a nightlight into them one moment and a kilowatt hairdryer the next. In a fixture, luminaire, or appliance, on the other hand, the designers can use thinner wire (down to 18AWG for fixture wire as per NEC 402.6) as they know how much ...



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