New answers tagged staining
I think the white spots are lime leaching up to the top. If the concrete stays wet, that is hard to stop. Sealing the concrete can help but it can wick up moisture from below too. I stained an interior slab and haven't had this problem but I think there is plastic below the slab. But personally I think your concrete looks fine. I would find another project ...
You don't mention what type of wood it is but it's an important piece of info to know. Some woods and their plywood counter parts are more difficult to stain without additional prep. Birch is an example that usually requires a conditioner prior to staining. A lot of oils will give wood a nice light finish. Mineral oil is really cheap and easy to apply. ...
You can use "furniture glaze" (pretty much a tinted "clear" finish.) You could tint/dye a clear finish, or use a naturally tinted "clear" finish such as dark shellac. For both of those you'd likely need to at least scuff-sand the current finish to get good adhesion. You can also use a colored/tinted furniture wax over the current finish.
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