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I have a single switch that turns on/off both a light and a fan. How do I add a switch so that each is controlled by its own switch?

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The easiest technique - ie one that won't require you to run a second line from the wall to the fan - is to install a remote control switch in place of the existing one.

The way that works is you disconnect the fan from the wiring, and insert a receiver unit which connects to light and fan separately, and then you replace the original switch with a control unit that talks to the receiver. That gives you the control you desire without having to enlarge the switch box and run new wiring. All the control elements are concealed behind the fan mounting and wall switch face plates, but still accessible.

These units can be purchased at pretty much any hardware store.

One such example. This kind doesn't replace the existing switch but you mount the remote's base over the switch so it can't disable the fan/light. Others actually replace the switch completely.

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This definitely works for ceiling paddle fans. I've never thought about using it for a light/exhaust fan combo (wasn't sure what OP has) –  HerrBag Sep 29 '13 at 12:45
    
In either case I am assuming a single lead from switch to unit. When I instal. exhaust fan/light combos I run two leads to two switches, though you probably could find a case where someone installed two leads between 1 switch and the fan and light... –  The Evil Greebo Sep 29 '13 at 12:48
    
I vaguely recall encountering a city code somewhere where any required mechanical ventilation fan (bath with no window) MUST be switched with the primary lighting switch. Big brother determined occupants were incapable of deciding if ventilation is needed or not. –  bcworkz Sep 30 '13 at 17:14
    
Just in case it isn't clear. Those two devices probably share the same cables. If you want two diferent switches you need more wires connecting the switches with the devices. –  Javier Oct 2 '13 at 17:53
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