Is there a 'better' choice between Halogen bulbs and Incandescent bulbs for an inside the oven light? Is one more efficient or safer than the other? Should I seriously consider which is used when choosing a new stove? Thanks.
A halogen bulb is a subspecies of incandescent: Incandescent bulbs produce light by heating up a conductive filament made of tungsten to a high temperature.
Halogen bulbs do the same thing, but add some iodine or bromine to the enclosure to efficiently redeposit evaporated tungsten back onto the filament. For that to work, the bulb interior is smaller and uses a higher gas pressure than a conventional bulb to keep the glass hot enough to sustain the halogen cycle. Halogens run hotter by design, but it also produces higher efficiency light with a whiter spectrum.
For an oven bulb which directly or indirectly experiences oven temperatures, you probably want an "appliance bulb". They are designed for direct exposure to extreme household temperatures and are suitable for being inside freezers and ovens, even self-cleaning ovens.
As far as I can tell, all appliance bulbs use ordinary incandescent technology, so they aren't as efficient as could be. But really—how much time does an oven light spend on? In my home, it is less than an hour a year.
Typically, given a bulb type, you have many options - incandescent, halogen, LED, compact fluorescent, etc. You can swap them out at will so I would not let this be a deciding factor in a purchase.
Halogen bulbs give off a different light than an incandescent so it's really just a matter of personal preference. They do typically cost more, but also last longer. As far as efficiency, you get more lumens per watt compared to an incandescent bulb but given identical wattage, both bulbs will consume the same amount of energy.