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I would like to open up a wall made of cinder bricks between a finished basement (back split) and the garden shed that is an original part of the house.

I would then have the garden shed space framed in and insulated. I would put in a door between these two spaces and the garden shed would then be used a a closet for the apartment.

Do I need to have 6 foot steel heading installed?

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Well it depends if the wall you are removing is load bearing. I am thinking it probably is but we would need to know this before answering. – DMoore Apr 21 '13 at 5:09

A block wall that is actually part of the original outside wall of the main structure is most certainly a load bearing wall or part of the foundation. It is possible to open a six foot section, but care must be taken to install a properly sized supported header or if block is still going to be above the opening, a steel lentil. You will need some temp supports while building this new opening. A bit more details of your proposed project and some pics would be helpful.

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