Hi, i was just wanting some people to take a loot at this diagram i threw together to see if this system would work? and if so do i need to put each area that i tie the main 12/2 together in a box of some kind?
This is what your wiring diagram should look like.
Notice the black wire is used to feed the switch, while the white wire is markered and used to feed the light from the switch. This is because the black wire going to the switch will always be hot, but the white wire "returning" from the switch is only hot when the switch is in the ON position. The white "switched" wire can be marked simply by wrapping a bit of black electrical tape at each end of the wire.
All the grounding conductors are tied together, and connected to the box (if a metal box is used).
Box Fill Calculations
According to section 314.16 of the National Electrical Code (NEC), you'll have to count each conductor that enters the box once, all the grounds as one, any luminaire studs, hickeys, or fixture straps as one, each single yoke device is 2, and internal clamps are 1. Once you have this number, you'll multiply it by the value in Table 314.16(B) according to the largest conductor used. This will give you the total minimum box size, in cubic inches (cubic centimeters).
Ceiling Fixture Boxes
For each ceiling fixture box (excluding the last), the box fill will be as follows:
Assuming you'll be using 12 AWG wires, Table 314.16(A) tells us you'll need a 4" x 2 1/8" round/octagonal box for the first 3 boxes (or a box at least 18 cubic inches).
The last fixture box fill will be as follows:
So you'll need at least a 4" x 1 1/2" round/octagonal box, for the last box.
This means you'll be able to use any device box larger than 11.25 cubic inches, for the switches.
While 12 AWG wire may be a bit overkill for this installation; if that's the size wire you have, there is no problems using it.
According to section 300.15 of the National Electrical Code, all junctions must be made in a box or conduit body. Section 314.29, adds that the box must be "accessible without removing any part of the building".
Yes, that should work with some notes:
1) The lights should be grounded as well.
2) Yes, any area in which you have a junction needs to be accessible. In your case, you would typically have the light fixture and the junction from the incoming and outgoing main cable in the same box.
That'll work, but...
Let start with the basics. A light turns on when 120/240 VAC is applied on one side and neutral is applied to the other side. For safety reasons you want the casing of the light to be grounded, there is typically a screw on the light dedicated for this purpose.
Of course you will also want the ability to turn this light on and off. The way this is done is by placing a switch in-line with 120/240 VAC line. I assume you have these basics under control.
Now for the logistics of making this happen. First off, all connections have to occur inside of an accessible junction box. You don't want some wires dangling around open to who knows what messing with them. But you do want them accessible, this way you just have to remove a couple of screws if a wire comes loose instead of having to dig through Sheetrock remembering where you put that connection at. The accessible junction box can be the box in the ceiling, the switch box, or can even be a box with a blank face plate who's only purpose is to protect a junction.
The next thing to worry about is those who mess with your work after you. You want them to know what is power and what is neutral. Connecting a black and white wire together makes this very difficult to determine whats what. As a result, you need to find a way to make this more clear. What you can do is connect all of the black wires together, and then put a black mark on the white wire. This will let people know that despite it being a white wire (typically neutral) it is not actually a neutral wire.
Your diagram is a bit crude, but it will "work" as I read it.
A few things to note: