Our basement dryer vent was cut too big. There's a gap of approximately 2" all the way around. We want to fill it (crickets, and cold air in winter come in). I bought a can of spray insulation but am worried about using it. Is there a flat cover/collar that would cover the excess hole? Or should we make one?
A good solution would be to make a collar/cover of a material that would fit visually with the outside wall, and would provide a reliable seal to prevent water, air, and pest infiltration. Then to support a good seal, use spray foam to insulate around the duct.
The appropriate material for the collar depends on the wall you're going through. If it's a masonry wall, you can use mortar or a concrete patching compound. If the outside is vinyl siding, a small sheet of vinyl could work, with the appropriate trim pieces to terminate the cut vinyl boards (you may want to cut them square so this looks better). If the outside is wooden shingles or clapboard, a painted piece of pressure-treated plywood or cellular PVC trim board would look OK.
Depending on what exactly was cut, and how much, you may want to replace some of your sheathing to support the siding or collar pieces.
Make sure to use the appropriate trim and caulking to seal the collar to the exterior wall. This is really important to seal out water. Consider how water would flow onto and off of the surface - you want gravity on your side. So if you're doing this with wood shingles, make sure the shingles overlap your collar piece on top, and your collar overlaps the shingles below. You don't want a situation where if your caulk wears out you are funneling water behind your siding.
Try strip caulking or Dum Dum sealant. I live in a -40°C winter climate and just installed a new dryer duct in January.